Black, Brown, Bruised: How Racialized STEM Education Stifles Innovation Electronic Bibliography

Updated: Aug 15, 2021



NOTES






INTRODUCTION


1. Robbin Chapman, “Rendering the Invisible Visible: Student Success in Exclusive Excellence STEM Environments,” in Diversifying STEM: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Race and Gender, eds. Ebony McGee and William H. Robinson (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2019).

URL: https://www.rutgersuniversitypress.org/diversifying-stem/9781978805675


2. Chapman, “Rendering the Invisible Visible.”

URL: https://www.lindahall.org/event/rendering-the-invisible-visible-student-success-in-exclusive-excellence-stem-environments/


3. Ruha Benjamin, “Innovating Inequity: If Race Is a Technology, Postracialism Is the Genius Bar, Ethnic and Racial Studies 39 (2016): 2227–34; Ebony O. McGee, “Devalued Black and Latino Racial Identities: A Byproduct of College STEM Culture?,” American Educational Research Journal 53, no. 6 (2016): 1626–62.

URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01419870.2016.1202423

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.3102/0002831216676572


4. Ani Turner and Beth Beaudin-Seiler, W. K. Kellogg Foundation Report May 2018, https://altarum.org/sites/default/files/uploaded-publication-files/WKKellogg-MI-Business-Case-for-Racial-Equity-Report_2018.PDF.

URL: https://www.wkkf.org/resource-directory/resources/2018/07/business-case-for-racial-equity


5. Ebony O. McGee, “‘Black Genius, Asian Fail’: The Detriment of Stereotype Lift and Stereotype Threat in High-Achieving Black and Asian Students,” AERA Open 4, no. 4 (2018): 1–16, doi: 10.1177/2332858418816658.

URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858418816658


6. David R. Williams, “Why Discrimination Is a Health Issue,” Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, October 17, 2017, https://www.rwjf.org/en/blog/2017/10/discrimination-is-a-health-issue.html.

URL: https://www.rwjf.org/en/blog/2017/10/discrimination-is-a-health-issue.html


7. Zinzi Bailey et al., “Racism in the Time of COVID-19,” The Interdisciplinary Association for Population Health Science (IAPHS), April 9, 2019, https://iaphs.org/racism-in-the-time-of-covid-19/.

URL: https://iaphs.org/racism-in-the-time-of-covid-19/


8. Arline T. Geronimus et al., “‘Weathering’ and Age Patterns of Allostatic Load Scores Among Blacks and Whites in the United States,” American Journal of Public Health 96, no. 5 (2006): 826–833; Arline T. Geronimus, “The Weathering Hypothesis and the Health of African-American Women and Infants: Evidence and Speculations,” Ethnicity and Disease 2, no. 3 (1991): 207–221.

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1470581/


9. See Martha Hostetter and Sarah Klein, “In Focus: Reducing Racial Disparities in Health Care by Confronting Racism,” The Commonwealth Fund, September 27, 2018, https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/newsletter-article/2018/sep/focus-reducing-racial-disparities-health-care-confronting.

URL: https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/newsletter-article/2018/sep/focus-reducing-racial-disparities-health-care-confronting


10. Jamelle Bouie, “Why Coronavirus Is Killing African-Americans More Than Others,” New York Times, April 14, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/07/opinion/coronavirus-blacks.html.

URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/07/opinion/coronavirus-blacks.html


11. Michael D. Yates and John Bellamy Foster, “Trump, neo-fascism, and the COVID-19 Pandemic,” MRonline, April 11, 2020, https://mronline.org/2020/04/11/trump-neo-fascism-and-the-covid-19-pandemic/.

URL: https://mronline.org/2020/04/11/trump-neo-fascism-and-the-covid-19-pandemic/


12. See https://iaphs.org/racism-in-the-time-of-covid-19/.

URL: https://iaphs.org/racism-in-the-time-of-covid-19/


13. Nauseen Hasum et al., “Chicago’s Coronavirus Disparity: Black Chicagoans Are Dying At Nearly Six Times the Rate of White Residents,” Chicago Tribune, April 7, 2020, https://www.chicagotribune.com/coronavirus/ct-coronavirus-chicago-coronavirus-deaths-demographics-lightfoot-20200406-77nlylhiavgjzb-2wa4ckivh7mu-story.html.

URL: https://www.chicagotribune.com/coronavirus/ct-coronavirus-chicago-coronavirus-deaths-demographics-lightfoot-20200406-77nlylhiavgjzb2wa4ckivh7mu-story.html


14. Fabiola Cineas, “COVID-19 Is Disproportionately Taking Black Lives,” Vox, April 8, 2020, https://www.vox.com/identities/2020/4/7/21211849/coronavirus-black-americans.

URL: https://www.vox.com/identities/2020/4/7/21211849/coronavirus-black-americans


15. See https://iaphs.org/racism-in-the-time-of-covid-19/.

URL: https://iaphs.org/racism-in-the-time-of-covid-19/


16. Lydia Blanco, “Prior To Covid-19, Dr. Kizzmekia S. Corbett Was Formulating Success As A Black Woman In Science,” Black Enterprise, April 2, 2020, https://www.blackenterprise.com/prior-to-covid-19-dr-kizzmekia-corbett-was-formulating-success-as-a-black-woman-in-science/.

URL: https://www.blackenterprise.com/prior-to-covid-19-dr-kizzmekia-corbett-was-formulating-success-as-a-black-woman-in-science/


17. Ibram X. Kendi, “Stop Blaming Black People for Dying of the Coronavirus,” Atlantic, April 14, 2020, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/04/race-and-blame/609946/.

URL: https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/04/race-and-blame/609946/


18. Kenya Evelyn, “It’s a racial justice issue: Black Americans are dying in Greater Numbers form COVID-19,” Guardian, April 7, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/08/its-a-racial-justice-issue-black-americans-are-dying-in-greater-numbers-from-covid-19.

URL: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/08/its-a-racial-justice-issue-black-americans-are-dying-in-greater-numbers-from-covid-19


19. Janell Ross, “As more black Americans die from coronavirus, community leaders are taking action,” NBC News, April 17, 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/nbcblk/more-black-americans-die-coronavirus-community-leaders-are-taking-action-n1186256.

URL: https://www.nbcnews.com/news/nbcblk/more-black-americans-die-coronavirus-community-leaders-are-taking-action-n1186256


20. “Statement on COVID-19 Pandemic,” Science for the People, March 25, 2020, https://scienceforthepeople.org/2020/03/25/statement-on-covid-19-pandemic/.

URL: https://scienceforthepeople.org/2020/03/25/statement-on-covid-19-pandemic/


21. Patrick Collison and Michael Nielsen, “Science Is Getting Less Bang for Its Buck,” Atlantic, November 16, 2018, https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/11/diminishing-returns-science/575665/.

URL: https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/11/diminishing-returns-science/575665/


22. Dorothy Roberts, Fatal Invention: How science, politics, and big business re-create race in the twenty-first century (New York: New Press/ORIM, 2011); Alondra Nelson, The Social Life of DNA: Race, reparations, and reconciliation after the genome (Boston: Beacon Press, 2016).

URL: https://thenewpress.com/books/fatal-invention

http://www.beacon.org/The-Social-Life-of-DNA-P1243.aspx


23. Adam Rutherford, “How to Fight Racism Using Science,” Guardian, January 26, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/26/fight-racism-using-science-race-genetics-bigotry-african-americans-sport-linnaeus.

URL: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/26/fight-racism-using-science-race-genetics-bigotry-african-americans-sport-linnaeus



CHAPTER ONE



1. I capitalize Black and White for racial groups in accordance with American Psychological Association recommendations.


2. National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, “Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering,” National Science Foundation, last modified January 2017, https://nsf.gov/statistics/2017/nsf17310/digest/occupation/overall.cfm.

URL: https://nsf.gov/statistics/2017/nsf17310/digest/occupation/overall.cfm


3. Scott E. Page, The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008).

URL: https://press.princeton.edu/books/paperback/9780691138541/the-difference


4. Douglas L. Medin and Carol D. Lee, “Diversity Makes Better Science,” Association for Psychological Science Observer, May–June 2012, https://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/diversity-makes-better-science.

URL: https://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/diversity-makes-better-science


5. Medin and Lee, “Diversity Makes Better Science.”

URL: https://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/diversity-makes-better-science


6. George F. Sefa Dei, “Afrocentricity: A Cornerstone of Pedagogy,” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 25, no. 1 (1994): 3–28, 5.

URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3195745


7. Sefa Dei, “Afrocentricity,” 20; Monica L. Miles et al., “Cultivating Racial Solidarity among Mathematics Education Scholars of Color to Resist White Supremacy,” International Journal of Critical Pedagogy 10, no. 2 (2019): 98–126.

URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3195745

http://libjournal.uncg.edu/ijcp/article/view/1901


8. Peggy Gabo Ntseane, “Culturally Sensitive Transformational Learning: Incorporating the

Afrocentric Paradigm and African Feminism,” Adult Education Quarterly 61, no. 4 (2011): 307–23, 308–309.

URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0741713610389781


9. I use the term underrepresented and racially minoritized to signify the marginalization and subordination of people of color in US institutions, including colleges and universities. Minoritized acknowledges a system of actionable policies and practices that racialize Black, Latinx, and Indigenous peoples, as opposed to the passive minority in underrepresented minorities, which implies some inherent and normalized state of affairs. Instead, they are rendered minorities by

overrepresentation of White supremacy, which actively creates a society that normalizes a hegemonic world view to the detriment of non-White people.


10. Julie Kaomea, “Hawaiian Math for a Sustainable Future: Envisioning a Conceptual Framework for Rigorous and Culturally Relevant 21st Century Elementary Mathematics Education,” H lili: Multidisciplinary Research on Hawaiian WellBeing 7 (2011): 293, http://www.ksbe.edu/_assets/spi/hulili/hulili_ vol_7/11_Hulili_2011_Vol7_.

URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337512350_Hawaiian_Math_for_a_Sustainable_Future



11. Jerry Lipka, Dora Andrew-Ihrke, and Eva Evelyn Yanez, “Yup’ik Cosmology to

School Mathematics: The Power of Symmetry and Proportional Measuring,” Interchange 42, no. 2 (2011): 157–83, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10780-011-9153-4.

URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10780-011-9153-4


12. Bev Caswell et al., “We Don’t Think of It in Terms of Math, It’s Just the Way of

Life,” in Annual Perspectives in Mathematics Education: Rehumanizing Mathematics

for Black, Indigenous, and Latinx Students, eds. Imani Goffney, Rochelle Gutiérrez, and M. Boston (Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2018), 79–92, 85.

URL: https://www.nctm.org/Store/Products/APME-2018-Ch-6--%E2%80%9CWe-don-t-think-of-it-in-terms-of-math,-it-s-just-the-way-of-life%E2%80%9D-(Download)/


13. K. Tsianina Lomawaima and Jeffrey Ostler, “Reconsidering Richard Henry Pratt: Cultural Genocide and Native Liberation in an Era of Racial Oppression,” Journal of American Indian Education 57, no. 1 (2018): 79–100.

URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/10.5749/jamerindieduc.57.1.0079.pdf


14. Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. and Rubén Donato, “Latino Education in Twentieth-Century America: A Brief History,” in Handbook of Latinos and Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, eds. E. G. Murillo Jr. et al. (New York: Routledge, 2010), 27–62.

URL: https://www.routledge.com/Handbook-of-Latinos-and-Education-Theory-Research-and-Practice/Munoz-Machado-Casas-Jr/p/book/9780805858402


15. Luis C. Moll and Norma González, “Lessons from Research with Language Minority Children,” Journal of Reading Behavior 25 (1994): 439–56.

URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1080/10862969409547862


16. Norma González, Luis C. Moll, and Cathy Amanti, eds., Funds of Knowledge: Theorizing Practices in Households, Communities, and Classrooms (New York: Routledge, 2006).

URL: https://www.routledge.com/Funds-of-Knowledge-Theorizing-Practices-in-Households-Communities-and/Gonzalez-Moll-Amanti/p/book/9780805849189


17. Rubén A. Gaztambide-Fernández, “Decolonization and the Pedagogy of Solidarity,” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 1, no. 1 (2012): 41–67, 47.

URL: https://jps.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/des/article/view/18633


18. Mathematics Education Scholars of Color, Registration and Planning Questionnaire, Proceedings from Mathematics Education Scholars of Color Conference, May 4, 2018,

Chicago, 1.


19. Miles et al., “Cultivating Racial Solidarity.”

URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337740054_Cultivating_racial_solidarity_among_mathematics_education_scholars_of_color_to_resist_White_supremacy


20. Jesse Washington, “Declining Numbers of Blacks Seen in Math, Science,” NBC News, October 23, 2011.

URL: https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna45007879


21. Lawrence A. Tabak and Francis S. Collins, “Weaving a Richer Tapestry in Biomedical Science,” Science 333, no. 6045 (2011): 940–41.

URL: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/333/6045/940


22. Catherine Ashcraft and Anthony Breitzman, “Who Invents It? Women’s Participation in Information Technology Patenting,” 2012 Update, National Center for Women and Information Technology, http://www.ncwit.org/sites/default/files/resources/2012whoinventsit_web_1.pdf.

URL: https://rdw.rowan.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=csm_facpub


23. “Science Benefits from Diversity,” editorial, Nature, June 6, 2018, https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05326-3.

URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05326-3


24. Clare O’Connor, “Facebook’s ‘Pipeline’ Excuse: Black Women in Tech Speak Out on Diversity Failure,” Forbes, July 18, 2016, https://www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2016/07/18/facebooks-pipeline-excuse-black-women-in-tech-speak-out-on-diversity-failure/#334c260e21d4.

URL: https://www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2016/07/18/facebooks-pipeline-excuse-black-women-in-tech-speak-out-on-diversity-failure/#334c260e21d4


25. Elizabeth Weise and Jessica Guynn, “Tech Jobs: Minorities Have Degrees, but Don’t Get Hired,” USA Today, October 12, 2014, https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2014/10/12/silicon-valley-diversity-tech-hiring-computer-science-graduates-african-american-hispanic/14684211/.

URL: https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2014/10/12/silicon-valley-diversity-tech-hiring-computer-science-graduates-african-american-hispanic/14684211/


26. Lou Silva, “Reconstructing Bermuda’s Pipeline for Black Males in Education: From Mazes of Mediocrity to Pathways to Success,” presented at International Colloquium on Black Males in Education: Educational Transitions and Life Trajectories: Bridging Pathways to Success for Black Males, Bermuda College, Hamilton, Bermuda.

URL: http://globalcolloquium.wceruw.org/files/2016%20Colloquium%20Full%20Program.pdf


27. O’Connor, “Facebook’s ‘Pipeline’ Excuse.”

URL: https://www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2016/07/18/facebooks-pipeline-excuse-black-women-in-tech-speak-out-on-diversity-failure/?sh=186e5f9c21d4


28. O’Connor, “Facebook’s ‘Pipeline’ Excuse.”

URL: https://www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2016/07/18/facebooks-pipeline-excuse-black-women-in-tech-speak-out-on-diversity-failure/?sh=186e5f9c21d4


29. Cary Funk and Kim Parker, “Women and Men in STEM Often at Odds over Workplace Equity,” Pew Research Center Social and Demographic Trends, January 9, 2019, https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/01/09/women-and-men-in-stem-often-at-odds-over-workplace-equity/.

URL: https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/01/09/women-and-men-in-stem-often-at-odds-over-workplace-equity/


30. Funk and Parker, “Women and Men in STEM.”

URL: https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/01/09/women-and-men-in-stem-often-at-odds-over-workplace-equity/


31. Ani Turner and Beth Beaudin-Seiler, W. K. Kellogg Foundation Report May 2018, https://altarum.org/sites/default/files/uploaded-publication-files/WKKellogg-MI-Business-Case-for-Racial-Equity-Report_2018.PDF.

URL: https://www.wkkf.org/resource-directory/resources/2018/07/business-case-for-racial-equity


32. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Racism without Racists: Color-blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2018).

URL: https://sociology.duke.edu/books/racism-without-racists-color-blind-racism-and-persistence-racial-inequality-america-fifth


33. Bonilla-Silva, Racism without Racists.

URL: https://sociology.duke.edu/books/racism-without-racists-color-blind-racism-and-persistence-racial-inequality-america-fifth


34. Ebony O. McGee and David Stovall, “Reimagining Critical Race Theory in Education: Mental Health, Healing, and the Pathway to Liberatory Praxis, Educational Theory 65, no. 5 (2015): 491–511; Darrell L. Hudson et al., “Are Benefits Conferred with Greater Socioeconomic Position Undermined by Racial Discrimination among African American Men?,” Journal of Men’s Health 9, no. 2 (2012): 127–36.

URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/edth.12129

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22707995/


35. Aldon Morris, The Scholar Denied: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Birth of Modern Sociology (Oakland: University of California Press, 2017).

URL: https://www.ucpress.edu/book/9780520286764/the-scholar-denied


36. W. E. B. Du Bois, Black Folk Then: A History and Sociology of the Negro Race: The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois, vol. 7 (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007).

URL: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/black-folk-then-and-now-an-essay-in-the-history-and-sociology-of-the-negro-race-9780195325829?lang=en&cc=gb


37. Jomo W. Mutegi, “A Critical Examination of the Influence of Systemic Racism in Shaping the African STEM Research Workforce,” in Diversifying STEM: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Race and Gender, eds. Ebony McGee and William H. Robinson (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2019), https://www.rutgersuniversitypress.org/diversifying-stem/9781978805675.

URL: https://www.rutgersuniversitypress.org/diversifying-stem/9781978805675


38. L. R. Thompson, J. L. Davis, and Jomo Mutegi, “‘There’s No One Here That Looks Like Me’: Nation Building as a Res